Resolving "Failed to calculate the dependencies for this component. ID of the missing components: xxxxxxxx-xxxx-…"

I recently got a question from my colleague asking why he wasn’t able to import a managed solution into a new environment. The import failed with message “Failed to calculate the dependencies for this component. ID of the missing components: xxxxxxxx-xxxx-…

So, after reproducing the problem, I downloaded the log file to Excel and noticed that the system failed to import an email template. This failure cascades into failure of the import of a workflow, because it had a dependency on the email template.

As it turned out, the solution was designed in an environment with an English base language and he was trying to import the solution in an environment with a Dutch base language.
Even though the solution contained a number of language translations, the email template was designed for English(1033). The base language of this environment was different from English.

So as a quick fix, I installed the English language pack on the destination environment, reran the import process and TA-TA, imported completed successfully.